What is an Electromagnet?
Electromagnet is a type of temporary magnet composed of two words i.e. electron and magnet therefore a metal which has basic necessity of current and organized in such a way that it behaves like a magnet is called an electromagnet or simply we can say that a magnet which is created with the help of electricity is called an electromagnet. A simple magnet can be used in limited applications like in Earphones, Speakers, and fridges etc. whereas in the case of an electromagnet we can control the magnetism by increasing or decreasing the current flowing through the coil which gives priority to the electromagnet and ultimately makes the use of an electromagnet in varieties of different applications. It should be noted that electromagnets are used to develop temporary and variable magnetic fields whereas in permanent magnet constant non-variable magnetic fields are produced.
Applications of an electromagnet
Electromagnets created a boom in the market due to its variety of applications from long scale industries to small-scale industries. Almost all the modern musical systems comprise with electromagnet such as electric bells, Earphones, loudspeakers, tape recorders extra. We know that the electromagnets produce temporary magnetism, therefore, it is also used as a magnet lifter in large-scale industries . Electric motors which converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy are also depends on the function of electromagnetism. Another important application of an electromagnet is an induction which refers to the production of magnetic force by changing the moment of the magnets or by changing the magnetic field.
How does Electromagnet work?
Before Knowing how an electromagnet works here comes a term called Solenoid. A solenoid is a simple cylindrical coil in which insulated wires are rapped like helix-shaped. A solenoid can be used as a wireless device receiving antennas and can be used as an electromagnet. Now a simple question comes in a mind that how Solenoid works as an electromagnet.When an electric current passes through the cylindrical coil than a magnetic field is produced around the coil which acts perpendicular to the wire which makes the core itself magnetic. The direction of the magnetic field produced depend on the direction in which current flows. The power of magnetism depends upon various factors like the number of turns of wire in the coil, Intensity of the current etc. If the number of turns of the wire in the coil is higher than the electromagnet produces a higher magnetic field which automatically added up to the core and increases the magnetic strength of the electromagnet.
Due to its heavy demand in the market scientist have been researching about electromagnet for more than a decade. Scientist characterized the electromagnets as Superconducting, Resistive and Hybrid electromagnets. When the electrical resistances reduces to zero then there comes the stage of superconductivity and in case of resistive the electrons produce a weak magnetic field so that you can concentrate the magnetic field into a particular piece of metal. Superconductive electromagnets have very high magnetic strength as compared to the resistive electromagnet. The hybrid electromagnet as suggested by the name is the combination of both Superconducting and resistive electromagnets.Hybrid electromagnets are mostly used as an electromagnetic brake.